№6 2015 (summaries)
YA. A. PONOMAREV AND PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY: FROM CLASSICS TO MODERNITY
A.L. Zhuravlev, D.V. Ushakov
Characteristic of scientifi c activity of Yakov Aleksandrovich Ponomarev is given; its main periods are indicated. It is shown that he was not only the founder of domestic psychology of creativity but prominent methodologist as well. The main achievements of psychologists of the generation of Ya.A. Ponomarev are described. Among such achievements are: the increase of public role of psychology, development of middle-range theories, transformation of psychological science at the methodological level and inclusion of psychology into scope of academic sciences.
Key words: psychology of creativity, methodology of psychology, Soviet psychology.
YA. A. PONOMAREV’S EVOLUTIONARY EPISTEMOLOGY
I.O. Aleksandrov, N.E. Maksimova
The paper is aimed to analyze the innovations contributed by Ya.A. Ponomarev into the area of evolutionary epistemology that lead to conceptual reorganization of the psychological science. The three major versions of evolutionary epistemology developed by K. Popper, K. Lorenz and J. Piaget were differentiated on the basis of: (1) adherence to a certain branch of evolutionism; (2) adherence to either hypothetical deductive or inductive models as the method of science not logic; (3) the way to explain invention of new knowledge. These criteria were applied to build a purposeful estimate of Ponomarev’s evolutionary epistemology. The evidence of its irreducibility to the above mentioned versions and originality is presented. Moreover, in the framework of Ponomarev’s version of evolutionary epistemology, theoretical foundation and empirical investigation are bounded into an entire coherent cycle of invention and explanation of new knowledge. The crucial role of psychologists in initiation and formation of evolutionary epistemology is mentioned particularly. The importance of evolutionary epistemology in the continuing process of differentiation of psychology as a sovereign science and epistemology as a part of philosophy is discussed.
Key words: evolutionary epistemology, global evolutionism, synthetic theory of evolution, epigenetic theory of evolution, Lamarckian evolutionism, emergence, inductive method, hypothetical-deductive method, psychology as a sovereign science, epistemology as a part of philosophy, differentiation.
HEURISTIC POTENTIAL OF YA.A. PONOMAREV’S CONCEPTION
V.M. Allakhverdov, V.A. Gershkovich, V.Y.
Karpinskaya, N.V. Moroshkina, O.V. Naumenko,
N.H. Tukhtieva, M.G. Philippova
The article is devoted to the problem that attracts interest of the modern psychologists viz to the problem of “intuitive” or “implicit” knowledge. The infl uence of Ya.A. Ponomarev’s approach on researches of St. Petersburg’s school of cognitive psychology is revealed and propositions of his conception are examined through the prism of modern experimental data. Propositions that integrate the authors’ approach with Ya.A. Ponomarev’s ideas about the nature of creative process are formulated. The role of implicit knowledge, irrelevant regularities and emotional signal “the task is solved” in creative tasks’ solving is analyzed. The development of some ideas of Ya.A. Ponomarev’s conception is done as well. In particular, the possibility of unconscious fi nding of solution to problem that will infl uence on current cognitive activity is discussed. The complexity of conversion of this unconscious solution to consciousness because of after-effect of negative choice is discussed. The advanced ideas are confi rmed by experimental data.
Key words: Ya.A. Ponomarev’s conception, implicit knowledge, unconscious negative choice, irrelevant parameters, creative tasks, conscious of solution.
INSIGHT-AS-SIGNAL MODEL: MAIN ASSUMPTIONS AND RELATION TO YA.A. PONOMAREV’S CONCEPTION
We analyze the theoretical models that explain insight as “all-or-none” process of solution fi nding: Poincaré’s model of random recombination, the model of gestalt restructuring and Ya.A. Ponomarev’s bipolar theory. In the framework of Ponomarev’s theory insight is considered as information transfer from intuitive to logical level of thinking. We propose the insight-as-signal model which enriches Ponomarev’s theory with the concept of spreading activation and Schwarz’s feeling-as-information notion. According to insight-as-signal model a problem solution initially appears in subconscious form and manifests itself as an activation pattern in the semantic network. The feeling of insight plays an important role in problem solving: it informs a person that currently activated information matches solution criteria. The proposed model enables to explain not only insightful solutions, but also the cases of solutions without insight or occurrences of “false” insight. We describe three experiments exploring Aha-cueing phenomenon that was theoretically deduced from insight-as-signal model.
Key words: thinking, creativity, insight, insight-as-signal model, Aha-cueing, bipolar theory.
COOPERATION BETWEEN YA. A. PONOMAREV AND M. G. YAROSHEVSKY IN DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY AND REFLECTION
Scientifi c activity of two leading experts in psychology of creativity – Ya.A. Ponimarev and M.G. Yaroshevsky – is examined. Comparative existential-psychological analysis of life courses of these scientists as a background for development of their scientifi c thinking is done. Signifi cance of cooperation between Ponomarev and Yaroshevsky for development of domestic schools for study of creativity, thinking and refl ection is characterized. Special attention is paid for analysis of early period in scientists’ study of scientifi c creativity (in the Institute of History of Natural Science and Engineering of AS USSR) as an initial basis for the further researches in the fi eld of psychology of creativity in IP RAS and within all-USSR section “Psychology of Creativity” in Association of Psychologists of USSR that was founded by Ya.A. Ponomarev. M.G. Yaroshevsky’s integrated scientifi c strategy for scientifi c creativity study and Ya.A. Ponomarev’s system-psychological strategy for creative thinking and system of creativity development study is clarifi ed. Further realization of these strategies in modern scientifi c schools of psychology of creativity, thinking and refl ection is revealed.
Key words: creativity, thinking, refl ection, development, cooperation, system. Scientifi c activity, personology, Ya.A. Ponomarev, M.G. Yaroshevsky.
REFLEXIVE CHARACTERISTIC ADAPTATIONS WITHIN THE FIVE-FACTOR THEORY OF PERSONALITY FRAMEWORK
The present article introduces the concept of reflexive characteristic adaptations within the framework of the five-factor theory of personality by R. McCrae and P. Costa. The concept deals with monitoring and processing opinions and beliefs about personality traits that individuals presumably have. Four types of the reflexive characteristic adaptations have been hypothetically proposed: trait efficacy (individuals opinions on how successful they are while responding to situations relevant to a trait), meta-trait (one’s opinion on how significant others see one’s traits), attitude toward trait (positive vs. negative evaluations of trait), meta-attitude toward trait (one’s opinions on attitudes toward the trait that significant others might have). One thousand thirty undergraduates aged from 17 to 38 years (including 339 men) fulfilled the Big Five Inventory and a number of its modifications that measured the reflexive characteristic adaptations. With few exceptions, the reflexive characteristic adaptations correlated positively with each other and the personality traits. However, multiple regression analyses revealed that meta-attitudes toward traits correlated negatively with corresponding traits while the remaining reflexive characteristic adaptations were controlled. The reflexive characteristic adaptations were shown to concern different aspects of a given personality trait and contribute to it incrementally. Future studies should address issues on mediations that reflexive characteristic adaptations may have within relationships between personality traits as basic tendencies and various external outcomes (objective biography). Another possible line of research concerns causal effects that reflexive characteristic adaptations can produce on various objective biography indicators.
Key words: the five-factor theory of personality, self-reflection, characteristic adaptations, individual differences, personality traits.
GENDER RELATIONS IN DIFFERENT ETHNIC CULTURES OF RUSSIA
L.G. Pochebut, I.A. Shmeleva
The influence of ethnic cultures on gender relations in Russia is analysed. It was found that movement to the egalitarianism within the ethnic culture results in gender asymmetry, in changing of traditional gender roles, and tendency to masculinity of women and femininity of men. Demands of traditional culture support preservation of the concordance of biological sex and gender behavior. Strong differentiation of gender roles in family relations restricts possibility of professional self-realization for women. Gender relations differ substantially in ethnic-culture of Russians and ethnic-cultures of people of Northern Caucuses, Tatarstan, Yakutia. In ethnic culture of Russians more gender asymmetry is observed than in other cultures on the territory of the Russian State.
Key words: cross-cultural studies, ethnic cultures, gender relations, gender behavior in cities and traditional settlements, egalitarianism, gender asymmetry, family relations, masculinity, femininity
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF OSCILLATORY PROCESSES IN BIOSOCIAL SYSTEMS’ BEHAVIOR
T.N. Grechenko, A.N. Kharitonov, A.V. Zhegallo, Y.I. Alexandrov
The role of oscillatory processes in the origin of electrographically registered rhythms has been studied. Generation of rhythms was supposed to be an attribute of every living matter. Total electrical activity was recorded from different parts of fi lms of fi lamentous cyanobacteria Oscillatoria terebriformis and cyanobacterial mats comprising Geitlerinema sp. and Halothece sp. Total electrical activity was registered from developing embryos of frogs Rana temporaria and brine shrimps Artemia salina at different stages of development. It was discovered that the fundamental rhythms of as early organisms as cyanobacteria coincide in frequency range with the rhythmic activity of human brain. It was revealed that synchronized electrical activity in association of microorganisms accompanies the biosocial systems’ formation. It is supposed that cooperation, “social” behavior, of the fi rst cellular structures gave rise to life on the Earth. The role of oscillators in complex live systems’ formation is discussed. The conclusion that oscillatory processes provide a common mechanism organizing cell interaction/cooperation to begin with a society of prokaryotic cells to multicellular organisms of highest levels of organization was drawn.
Key words: EEG, oscillators, rhythms, prokaryotes, biofi lm, embryos, “social” behavior.
CONCEPTION “HEALTH OF A HEALTHY PERSON”: INTEGRATION OF MEDICINE, PSYCHOLOGY AND RELIGION
A.N. Rasumov, V.A. Ponomarenko
Problems of modern man’s health from the viewpoint of medicine, psychology and spiritual cognition are discussed. It is stated that social policy of the State is directed mainly at treating the sick and not at preserving health of the healthy. The importance of prophylaxis for keeping and reproduction of the health of nation is argued; the necessity of integration of efforts of medics, psychotherapeutists and psychologists for these goals’ realizations is contended. Health-centered paradigm and authors’ conception of health protection of the healthy people is stated. Primary importance of moral-spiritual aspect of man’s health is emphasized.
Key words: health of a healthy person, health-centered policy, conception of health protection, moralspiritual values, psychological health.
CRISIS IN PSYCHOLOGY OR CRISIS OF RUSSIAN PSYCHOLOGISTS’ IDENTITY?
The author’s view on problem of crisis in modern psychology is stated. Widespread among Russian psychologists appraisal of situation in world’s psychology as a crisis is doubted. The objective of the study is to establish whether this appraisal is true to the fact or it expresses only anxieties of domestic psychological community. Based on analysis of differences in methodological debates about crisis, holding in domestic and foreign psychology, the author reveals the causes and factors of experiencing crisis by Russian psychologists from the socio-cultural and psychological positions. The conclusion that statement of crisis in psychological science is concealing the crisis of identity of Russian psychologists is drawn. The author considers that world psychology is not in intra-science crisis. Meanwhile, it is stated that psychology as a cultural activity of a certain scientifi c communities is involved into global cultural and civilizational processes that are characterized at present as crisis. It is hypothesized that junior generation of Russian scientists is less exposed to identity crisis’s experiencing than the senior ones. The author considers intensional dialogue between junior and senior generations of domestic psychologists about methodological problems of psychology as an important condition for identity crisis overcoming.
Key words: crisis in psychology, crisis of identity, Russian psychologists, methodological discussion, domestic psychology, foreign psychology.
PSYCHOSOCIAL HUMAN PROBLEM
S F. Sergeev
In current article we discuss methodological and theoretical problems arising from the implementation of the model of psychosocial human proposed by A.L. Zhuravlev, D.V. Ushakov and A.V. Yurevich, based on the classical system’s representations. We show the models’ controversies, caused by ignoring human mind and social systems self-organizing mechanisms. The article explains prospects of using this model of synergistic and constructivist views based on non-classical systems approach. We propose a method of immersion in artifi cial computer-based environments that simulate the processes of self-organization of social communications. In this software system agents start controlled communication relations with testing subjects, which allows predicting and controlling the direction of the development of social processes in groups.
Key words: agent-based models, autopoiesis, immersive environment, non-classical models, psychosocial human, self-organization, social communication.