№5 2015 (SUMMARIES)
INTELLIGENCE, CREATIVITY, LEARNING CAPABILITY: RESOURCE APPROACH (ON DEVELOPMENT OF V.N. DRUZHININ’S IDEAS)
M. A. Kholodnaya
Proposed by V.N. Druzhinin new approaches to analysis of the nature of general cognitive abilities are analyzed, conception of cognitive resource, model of intellectual range and situational approach to diagnostics are among them. These approaches are examined in the context of the following issues: intelligence-creativity ratio, correlation between intelligence and successfulness (including learning capability) and situational factors and the nature of cognitive abilities. The opposition of intellectual (convergent) and creative (divergent) abilities is shown to be groundlessness because individual cognitive resource stands as a mechanism for their correlation. Successfulness (academic, professional) stands as “achievements’ range”, its lower and upper thresholds being determined not only by IQ level but by motivation and personal characteristics as well. One could speak of a new type of psychodiagnostics of abilities in which person’s individual experience is an important element of psychodiagnostic situation. Prospects of conversion from opposition of separate cognitive abilities to their analysis as manifestation of integrated intelligence treated as major individual mental resource is discussed.
Key words: cognitive abilities, intelligence, creativity, learning capability, psychodiagnostic situation, cognitive resource, intellectual range, situational approach, V.N. Druzhinin, mental resources, resource approach.
V.N. DRUZHININ AS A PERSON, SCIENTIST, SCIENCE ORGANIZER
V. A. Koltsova, N. G. Nemirovskaya
Different aspects of Vladimir Nikolayevich Druzhinin’s personality that manifested themselves in encyclopedic knowledge, dedication to science, brilliant memory, poetic talent, love for his family, vivid experiencing of events that took place in our country, heedful of others, anxious about intellectual potential of Russian society are described. Main areas of V.N. Druzhinin’s scientifi c activity – general and cognitive psychology, psychology of intelligence and family psychology, psychology of personality and methodology, deferential psychometrics and psychology of creativity, existential psychology and psychodiagnostics of general abilities – are analyzed. Correlation of scientist’s personal peculiarities with the problems of his scientifi c researches is revealed. Model of intellectual range and conception of cognitive resource are specifi ed as V.N. Druzhinin’s new scientifi c ideas. Scientifi c-and-organizational contribution of V.N. Druzhinin to development of psychological science in whole and of Institute of Psychology RAS is disclosed.
Key words: psychology, personality, general abilities, model of intellectual range, conception of cognitive resource, intelligence, creativity.
RESOURCE FUNCTION OF AESTHETIC EXPERIENCE: APPROACH ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMATIZATION
P. A. Sabadosh
Differences in psychological aesthetics’ subject matter interpretation, which hinder this scientific field integration, are analyzed from the aesthetic experience’s functional role viewpoint. 5 basic approaches to understanding of this role are distinguished. These approaches are: (1) evolutionary – as a species adaptation resource; (2) psychophysical – as a resource of sensory stimuli mental representation; (3) intuitionist – as a part of special cognitive resource alternative to conceptual logic; (4) psychodynamic – as a resource of confl icting mental impulses integration; (5) existential – as a resource of human being fullness and of his vital link with the world. A model integrating these approaches into hierarchical system of aesthetic mental resources is suggested.
Key words: psychological aesthetics, aesthetic experience, mental resources system.
PERSONAL COGNITIVE STYLES AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH PERSON’S TEMPERAMENT AND CHARACTER IN EARLY YOUTH
V. M. Rusalov, E. V. Volkova
The results of comparison of cognitive styles indices with temperament and character traits are analyzed. It is shown that three cognitive-style complexes can express style structure in early youth: socio-verbal, emotional-motor and intellectual. The data confi rm that these cognitive-style complexes are joined with different types of modality-specifi c activity (psychomotor, intellectual, and communicative). It was also revealed that cognitive styles, having a number of common correlations with indices of modality-specific activity (temperament), are differentiated at the level of character traits.
Key words: cognitive styles, temperament, character, cognitive-style complexes, early youth, mental resources.
FACTORS OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AT PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVEL: SEX DIFFERENCES
T. N. Tikhomirova, A. D. Modyaev, N. M. Leonova, S. B. Malykh
The article presents the results of the analysis of the role of cognitive and non-cognitive factors of success in learning mathematics and Russian language in primary school boys and girls. We focused on cognitive measures: spatial memory, speed of information processing, number sense and a measure of motivation – the value of learning activities. We found sex differences in spatial memory, speed of information processing, the value of training activities and success in learning Russian language. The rate of success in mathematics in boys and girls showed similar structure of relationships of the analyzed characteristics, whereas for the success in Russian the structure of relationships was different (boys had no relationship with spatial memory). We revealed different patterns of predictors of success in learning mathematics and Russian in girls and boys of primary school age. We highlight the importance of the value of learning activity as a predictor of success in learning in younger school children of both sexes.
Key words: speed of processing, visuo-spatial memory, number sense, value of learning, academic achievement, primary school level, gender differences.
DYSSYNCHRONY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED CHILDREN: STRUCTURE-DYNAMIC APPROACH
E. A. Valueva, A. A. Grigor’ev, D. V. Ushakov
Dyssynchrony of cognitive development means peculiarity in structure of intellectual abilities of gifted children. Interpretation of dyssynchrony phenomenon in the context of structure-dynamic theory of intelligence is discussed. Notions of chronogenic (age-dependent) and personogenic (dependent on individual peculiarities) cognitive functions are defi ned. The research based on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is described. Consistent with prediction of structure-dynamic theory, coeffi cient of chronogenity (rate of subscale’s indices increase with the age) correlates positively with environmental need for abilities, general factor’s loadings and hereditivity of WISC’s subscales. The conclusion that differences in intellectual functions’ structure (including dyssynchrony) are the result of interaction of the three bases – child’s intellectual potential, environment and the time of ontogenesis is drawn. Low environmental need for abilities, resulting in increase of personogenity of ability, in combination with
person’s great cognitive efforts results in situation of dyssynchrony in cognitive development.
Key words: intelligence, giftedness, dyssynchrony, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).
SYSTEM EQUIVALENCE OF BRAIN POTENTIALS P300 AND P600 IN SENSORY-MOTOR SELECTION TASKS AND WORDS CATEGORIZATION
B. N. Bezdenezhnykh
Actual for psychophysiology problem of revealing identical by content brain electrical potentials has been solved in the present research by means of comparison of potentials with system processes (according to P.K. Anohin), that are invariant for different actions. Components of event-related potentials corresponding to the processes of afferent synthesis were examined. It was hypothesized that the component of evoked potentials that has stable association with the number of simultaneously active systems corresponds to the process of afferent synthesis. Two empirical studies with EEG registration are described. In the fi rst study (50 participants, aged 18–37, 22 females and 28 males), sensory-motor selection task was set: two equiprobable alternative visual signals were presented and the participants predicted their occurrence with different probability. In the second study (50 persons aged 18–25, 24 females and 26 males) the sample categorized target words that designated specifi c object or living object with previous semantic priming. Two prime-words used for priming (“organisms” and “objects”) were presented in random order. In sensory-motor selection task, it was revealed that the amplitude of the frontal slope of P300 related to the answer on subjectively less probable signal, was signifi cantly less than the amplitude of the frontal slope of P300 related to the performance on more probable signal. In categorization task, it was revealed that the amplitude of the frontal slope of P600 related to targetwords’ categorization when the prime word was different, was less than the amplitude of the frontal slope of P600 related to target-words’ categorization when prime word corresponded to the latter. The arguments for conception that the decrease of the amplitude of the frontal slope of P300 and P600 components characterizes the increase of the number of simultaneously active systems in the individual experience of participants of the study are adduced. Based on the results, the conclusion about system equivalence of P300 and P600 potentials was drawn.
Key words: system processes, afferent synthesis, differentiated actions movements, sensomotor choic, categorization of words, event-related potentials, P300, P600.
INTERNET ACTIVITY AS MANIFESTATION OF PERSON’S NEED FOR COLLECTIVE SUBJECT
I. R. Sushkov, N. S. Kozlova
The analysis of Internet-space infl uence on person is presented, negative as well as positive effects of Internet on person are revealed. The goal of theoretical research was to reveal the possibilities of virtual collective subject existing in person’s consciousness. The processes of social identity, aspiration for publicity and self-presentation realizing in virtual world are considered. The conclusion that the mentioned aspects of Internet activity interpenetrating and conditioning each other have peculiarities that defi ne Internet-space as a specifi c sphere of person’s life activity and act as mechanisms for realization of person’s need for collective subject is drawn. A person is able to create its own virtual collective subject in case when real situation generates the fear of loss of collective subject as the fear of loss of own individuality and own subjectity causing the feeling of alienation and loss of meaning of life. The idea that has not attracted attention of social psychology, the idea of manifestation of person’s need for becoming virtual collective subject in Internet activity is advanced.
Key words: Internet-space, social identity, aspiration for publicity, self-presentation, social influence, socio-psychological relations, real collective subject, virtual collective subject.
LIBERALS AND PSEUDOLIBERALS: PSYCHOLOGICAL PORTRAITS
A. V. Yurevich
Unpopularity of liberalism in modern Russia is stated. According to the author’s opinion, the reason for that is not a true liberalism but its pseudoliberal “mutation”. The main differences between liberals and pseudoliberals are examined. These differences are in understanding of freedom, attitude to patriotism and morality, fundamental ideologemas, style of thinking, life style, relation between principles and interests, etc. The main goals for restoration of positive attitude to liberalism in our country are stated as well as prognosis that confrontation between true liberalism and pseudoliberalism could become the main arena for ideological struggle in the near future is given.
Key words: liberalism, pseudoliberalism, psychological portrait, macro-psychology, attitude to freedom, attitude to morality, patriotism, trust, attitude to the State, corruption.
SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY AS A SUBJECT OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY
O. A. Artem’eva
The problem of science’s social responsibility is emphasized. The subject approach to its solving as well as theoretical and methodological basis for its realization is proposed. Based on analysis of philosophical, psychology of science, general and social psychology works, subjectity criteria are marked out. Characteristics of pre-subjectity, becoming and developed stages of collective scientifi c subject activity are given on the material of Russian psychology of the fi rst half of the XX century. Possibility to solve the problem of science social responsibility when scientifi c community achieves the stage of developed subject is grounded.
Key words: scientifi c community, collective subject of scientifi c activity, social responsibility of science, history of psychology.
FACTORS OF POSITIVE ADAPTATION OF MIGRANTS: ANALYSIS OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES
V. I. Morosanova, A. A. Nesterova, T. F. Suslova
The conditions of psychological adaptation and features of integration of migrants to the new sociocultural environment are investigated. As a result of analysis of the theoretical approaches to the integration of migrants and foreign and domestic experimental researches as well the concept of “positive adaptation” in relation to the migration processes is defi ned, the external (social) and internal (psychological) factors affecting a positive adaptation to new living conditions are highlighted. The effi ciency of different theoretical approaches to the study of positive adaptation is substantiated, key role of resilience, deliberate self-control, mental constructs in successful adaptation psychological resources is defi ned. The prospects for using psychological techniques of constructivist approach to help migrants in the conditions of resettlement are pointed out.
Key words: positive adaptation of migrants, policies and factors of adaptation, resilience, self-regulation, constructivism.
CONTRIBUTION OF B.D. PARYGIN TO THE REVIVAL OF RUSSIAN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (TO THE 85TH ANNIVERSARY OF B.D. PARYGIN)
A. L. Zhuravlev, I. A. Mironenko
The article deals with the contribution of Parygin to the development of the methodological basics of the Russian social psychology in 1960-70s, when the tradition was formed that had defi ned the development of our science until the end of the Soviet period and today still largely determines its status and prospects. The basic features of the methodology of Parygin are considered. Integrity, which is manifested in the fact that he has developed a holistic view of social psychology as a system of knowledge; from unified positions considered general and specifi c questions of theory, methodology and practice; was consistently developing his system of views throughout his professional life. Attitude of the scientist to the dominant ideology and activity approach, spiritual and philosophical orientation of Parygin’s methodology is revealed. Characteristics of the structural-dynamic approach, which is a general method of analysis in his methodological framework, are reviewed by the example of the elaboration of the concepts of personality and communication, which Parigin gave a central place in the domain of social psychology.
Key words: history of Russian social psychology, methodology of social psychology, Russian spiritual and philosophical tradition, structural-dynamic approach, personality, communication.