№4 2015 (SUMMARIES)
HOME AS A CATEGORY OF PERSONAL EXPERIENCE
A. A. Bochaver
Interdisciplinary study of subjective conception of home as an element of personal experience is described. Based on environmental approach and statements about subjective and social character of home conception, recent empirical researches of living environment, methodology of A. Maslow’s motivation theory, cognitive theory of metaphor by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, as well as on empirical data analysis, four components of home conception existing in respondents’ personal experience that actualize different categories of needs are characterized. Fundamental, core ideas of home as a place for secure living and family maintenance constitute universal image of home. Everyday image of home describes possibility for interaction with nears and dears, creation of comfortable everyday life and refl ects subjective understanding of comfort. Dynamic image of home gives possibilities for self-changing through reconstruction of home space – control of emotional state and cognitive mood, appealing to family and personal history, broadening of repertoire of habitual kinds of activity, acquiring skills and realization of possibilities. Image of imaginary home is a pragmatic conception about the most comfortable physical environment for own life style’s realization. All components have psychotherapeutic potential that can be actualized at different stages of ontogenesis and in different situations. Study of psychology of home is prospective from practical psychology, psychology of environment and psychology of personality perspectives.
Key words: home, psychology of home, psychology of environment, subjective conception of home.
STRESS TOLERANCE AND SELF-APPRAISAL OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS
A. A. Baranov, O. A. Zhuchenko
The results of interrelation’s study between stress tolerance and inadequacy prediction the outcome of a exam situation are presented. Discovery of the correlation’s characteristics allows signifi cantly increase psychological readiness for activity in stressful conditions, improving the professionalism of the future expert through the working-out of developmental courses. The tests determined the communicative and emotional-volitional characteristics as the most important to respond to stressful situations (16-PF by R. Kettell, “QST” by V. Rusalov, “LSC” by J. Rotter), correlation analysis have been selected to test the hypothesis. First empirically discovered that a low stress resistance, manifested in the high sensitivity to failures in the subject and the social sphere, the propensity to tension, anxiety, restlessness, correlated to the inadequacy prediction the outcome of the exam situation.
Key words: students, examination stress, stress tolerance, prediction the outcome of a situation, selfesteem of academic achivements.
INDIVIDUAL VARIANTS OF SUBJECTIVE AGE AND ITS CORRELATIONS WITH FACTORS OF TIME PERSPECTIVE AND QUALITY OF HEALTH
E. A. Sergienko, Y. D. Kireeva
The paper is focused on a differentiated analysis of the phenomenon of subjective age and its subjective perception of age and its relationship with time perspective and health evaluation at 20–70 years old people. The survey involved 301 respondents aged 20 to 70 years, including 104 men and 197 women. As a technique there were used a modifi ed version of the questionnaire “Age-of-Me”, adapted to the Russianspeaking population questionnaire F. Zimbardo, short form of the Russian version of the questionnaire “Health status survey”, profi le on the status, socio-economic status and the bad habits of respondents, developed by the authors. The comparison of results of the differentiated analysis with the general trends received in general for groups 20–30, 40–50 and 60–70 years showed that there are signifi cant differences for subgroups with adequate, understated and overstated their subjective age’s assessments in relation to the time perspective, the physical and mental health, social-economic factors and pernicious habits. The analysis allowed to detail the phenomenon of subjective age, showed that along with the general trends of age there are individual variations of self-perception of the age that serve individual internal psychological control of their lives.
Key words: subjective age, an adequate assessment of age, an understated assessment of age, an overstated assessment of age, time perspective, physical and mental health, people of different ages.
THEORY OF SOCIAL COMPARISON IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
N. G. Garanyan
Topicality of studies of social comparisons’ processes in the context of clinical psychology is grounded in the analytical review. Data about the spreading of envy in social nets are presented, thus making it possible to propose a thesis about cultural facilitation of social comparisons. The results of foreign researches on the problem of social comparisons in depressive disorders and distorted body image underlying eating behavior disorders are presented. The hypotheses of personal profi le for individuals inclined to frequent and “morbid” comparison are grounded. Advantages of perfectionism and narcissism studies as personal determinants for frequent social comparisons are settled. Prospects for future researches of the problem are emphasized.
Key words: social comparisons, depressive disorders, eating behavior disorders, perfectionism, narcissism.
LOOKING BACK TO RUBINSTEIN: EVOLUTION IN THE TREATMENT OF METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY
A. N. Zhdan, I. V. Schekotihina
It is given a holistic presentation of the methodological principles of psychology – the unity of consciousness and activity, determinism, development, personality, designed by outstanding domestic philosopher and psychologist S.L. Rubinstein. The evolution in the interpretation of their content in the scientifi c writings of S.L. Rubinstein is retraced. The direction of S.L. Rubinstein’s methodological thought is described – from questions about the nature of mental and its place in the overall relationship phenomena of the material world to the person and human and philosophical questions of human life in the totality of its activity-related, cognitive, aesthetic and ethical relations. It is claimed that principles developed by S.L. Rubinsheyn and his concept as a whole remain relevant and have high methodological signifi cance for modern psychology.
Key words: methodological principles of psychology, dialectical-materialist conception, the principle of the unity of consciousness and activity, the principle of determinism, the principle of development, personal principle, refl ection.
NEUROSCIENCE, PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES
S. N. Kostromina, N. V. Bordovskaya, N. N. Iskra, O. A. Chuvgunova, D. S. Gnedykh, D. M. Kurmakaeva
The main problems of interrelationship between neuroscience, psychology and education are discussed in this article. There are direct transferring results of neurophysiological studies in educational practice, misrepresentation and simplifi cation of neurophysiological discoveries in pedagogical handbooks and existing of neuromyths in its. The reasons of gap between achievements of neuroscience and education are described. The ways out of this situation are proposed: interdisciplinary researches directed to the decision of education, caregiving and development problems should be conducted, workshops on cognitive neuroscience could be taken into pedagogical and psychological educational programs, psychology could be a connecting fi eld for these mutual studies.
Keywords: neuroscience, neurodidactics, educational neuroscience, educational psychology, neuromyths.
THE INSTRUMENT FOR ASSESSMENT OF DWELLING FRIENDLINESS: “FUNCTIONALITY OF HOME ENVIRONMENT” QUESTIONNAIRE
S. K. Nartova-Bochaver, N. S. Dmitrieva, S. I. Reznichenko, V. B. Kuznetsova, E. I. Braginets
The importance to study and evaluate living environments, particularly home environments is discussed. It is noted that home (exactly dwelling) is a crucial environmental and social resource to maintain psychological well-being. The concept of friendliness of the home environment is introduced. Based on the theoretical review as well as using the laddering interview, the actualization constructs technique (G. Kelly’s minimum context method) and the endless sentences method, there were 55 constructs identify ed that underlie developed by authors questionnaire ‘Functionality of dwelling environment’. In total, 592 respondents participated in the survey (221 male, 371 female, with average age of 16.3, Me = 18.4, SD = 5.2). The four factor structure of the questionnaire fi ts empiric data best and consists of 4 scales: Usability, Development, Stability, and Security. The primary psychometric characteristics of the tool are described. The prospects of its application are sketched.
Key words: home environment, friendliness, functionality, ecological validity, well-being, laddering interview, the minimum context method, questionnaire, usability, development, stability, security
ATTACHMENT TO CLOSE PEOPLE QUESTIONNAIRE
N. V. Sabelnikova, D. V. Kashirsky
The new measure of attachment to close people is presented. The work on the questionnaire started with the adaptation of K. Brennan, S. Clark and F. Shaver’s questionnaire “Experiences in Close Relationships Scale” (ECR) on the sample of Russian students (n = 240). As a result of the three – years of the follow up research on Russian and American students a new psychometric tool was elaborated. The theoretical bases of a technique are presented. Cronbach’s coeffi cient, test–retest (n = 122), exploratory factor analysis, confi rmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis were employed. The new questionnaire is reliable in both the internal consistency and temporal stability senses. Factor structure of the questionnaire is almost completely reproduces the factor structure of the original questionnaire ECR. Convergent and discriminant validity of the new questionnaire is shown.
Key words: attachment to close people, avoidance, anxiety, ECR questionnaire, validity, reliability, social desirability, test norms.
RUSSIAN SOCIETY, POLYMENTALITY AND SOCIAL CONSENT
V. E. Semenov
The paper deals with the discussion theoretical and methodological issues of optimization of the psychological state of Russian society. The polymentality phenomenon is being specifi cally analyzed as an important factor of social consent and confl ict in the society. The data of empirical research are being shown.
Key words: optimization of the psychological state of society, discussion theoretical and methodological issues, polymentality, the basic Russian mentalities, confl icts between the mentalities, social consent.
PSYCHOLOGICAL RESOURCE IN SOLVING SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RUSSIA’S SOCIETY
T. A. Zhalagina, E. D. Korotkina
The possibilities and trends of psychological science and practice in solving strategic tasks of society’s development are discussed in the article. The problems of interaction between social-economic and psychological phenomena, correlation of social institutions and mentality are being touched upon. The possibilities of using the psychosocial approach as the means of harmonizing the process of social institutions and mentality interaction are analyzed. The peculiarities of Russia’s society mentality are described. Transformation of management and organization cultures in Russian society in the process of market economic relations’ introduction is touched upon. The necessity of new social development strategies’ discussion based on psychosocial man model is grounded. Education problems and psychological work with gifted children is outlined. The suggestion concerning the formation of the new interrelation model inside the educational institution based on the teachers’ psychological competence is made.
Key words: psychological science, psychological practice, mentality, psychological state of society, psycho-social approach, social institution, interaction, psychological culture, giftedness, psychological competence.
STYLE OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY OF V.N. DRUZHININ (TO 60-TH ANNIVERSARY)
A. L. Zhuravlev, M. A. Kholodnaya
Brief review of V.N. Druzhinin’s scientifi c biography is given as well as his contribution to psychology of abilities and intelligence, general and cognitive psychology, psychodiagnostics and psychology of family is stressed. Key ideas of his scientifi c researches that have been developed in modern psychological science in the model of intellectual range, phenomenon and notion of cognitive resource, situational approach to psychodiagnostics of intelligence, idea about the nature of creative abilities, description of variants of person’s life activity in terms of existential experience are emphasized. Peculiarities of V.N. Druzhinin’s scientifi c style including interrelation between scientist’s personality and content of scientific c work, close interaction between scientifi c and poetic activity, unity of intellectual and emotional components in his scientifi c activity are examined.
Key words: general abilities, cognitive abilities, intelligence, creativity, psychodiagnostics, test, psychological testing, cognitive resource, existential psychology, style of scientifi c activity.