№3 2015 (SUMMARIES)
CONTEXTUAL APPROACH IN PSYCHOLOGY
A. A. Verbitsky, V. G. Kalashnikov
The essence and methodological instruments of contextual approach in psychology are described in the article. Possibility to arranged description of the object under study in different intra-psychical and theoretical contexts is the main distinctive characteristic of the approach. Principles of contextual approach principles of context’s expansion, interdependence and variability, principle of contextual conditionality, system and complementarity are revealed; contexts’ classifi cation on different grounds is proposed; technique for contextual analysis is described. Context is considered as semantic mental mechanism and contextual approach – as a development of system approach, which makes it possible to specify coordinate system for ordering information about nature and mechanisms of psyche and to refl ex on methodological grounds of knowledge obtained in the frameworks of different models and conceptions.
Key words: context, contextual approach, psychological context, methodology, system, system approach.
PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY AND TRAUMATIC EXPERIENCE AS MODULATORS OF SEARCH FOR SOCIAL SUPPORT IN DIFFICULT LIFE SITUATIONS
E. N. Dymova, N. V. Tarabrina, N. E. Kharlamenkova
The representations about psychological safety in people with different levels of traumatic experiences, who are in a diffi cult situation, are analyzed. It is shown that psychological safety as a marker of diffi culties in actual situation, traumatic experience as characteristic of individual history of man are modulators of the human seek for social support. It was revealed, that at high index of traumatization the sphere of people, from whom social support is expected, becomes narrower. The study analyzed the life situations that may lead to the development of posttraumatic stress.
Key words: psychological safety, traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress, social support.
DETERMINANTS OF ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR
V. P. Sheinov
This article represents an analytical digest of the results of research by foreign scientists on personal assertiveness and assertive behavior. The short defi nitions in Russian of ‘assertiveness’ and ‘assertive behavior’ are validated in the Russian language and these defi nitions are in line with foreign authors’ viewpoint on these constructs. It is shown that the degree of assertiveness of an individual depends on the situation. The following factors have an impact on the assertiveness of behavior: ethnical and cultural factors, marital status, morals and taught principles, the level of education and culture of an individual, their partaking in various trainings and other factors. The data about a reliable and valid test of assertiveness that has been created by the author is given. With the help of this test, it is shown how mental differences infl uence perception of assertiveness of behavior.
Key words:assertiveness, assertive behavior, construct, validity of tests, situational factors, foreign research.
THE STRUCTURE OF WORKING MEMORY: EFFECTS OF INCREASED INFORMATION LOAD, PROCESSING COMPLEXITY, AND INTERFERENCE
B. B. Velichkovsky, E. Yu. Nikonova, M. A. Rumyantsev
The effects of working memory load, cognitive processing complexity and interference on working memory span were studied. It was hypothesized that working memory consists of independent functionally distinct components related to information storage and processing. Three experiments with 36 subjects were conducted. Working memory load, interference level and processing complexity were varied. An effect of working memory load was found in that storage effectiveness was reduced with higher load. The negative effect of interference on storage effectiveness increased under increased working memory load. The results indicate that working memory consists of a highly reliable storage system with limited capacity (region of direct access), two components differently sensitive to interference (region of direct access and activated part of long-term memory), and an independent component related to the processing of the active cognitive representation (focus of attention).
Key words: working memory, interference, processing complexity, focus of attention, long-term memory, information storage, information processing.
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF INFLUENCE OF CHILD CARE QUALITY ON HIS HEALTH
E.I. Nikolaeva, V.S. Merenkova
Psychological and psychophysiological characteristics of infants’ mothers that predetermine expectancy of abolishing inborn diagnoses are described. 100 mother-infant dyads participated in the research. Infants’ diagnoses received at birth and effi ciency of recovery during fi rst two years are described. Mothers’ level of attachment and cardiorhythm’s variability when recalling emotional situations connected with the child were assessed. Expectancy of diagnosis’s abolishing is shown to be correlated with the level of mother’s acceptance of child and peculiarities of reaction of her sympathetic nervous system in emotional situations of different modalities. Characteristic of attachment – “support” – is connected with the character of variability of her cardiorhythms when recalling positive and negative emotional situations as well. Characteristic “immediacy” correlates with reaction only for positive situations. Psychophysiological mechanism ensuring relationship of attachment with more effective child’s recovery is discussed.
Key words: attachment, emotional intelligence cardiorhythm variability, infants, health.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE IN METHODOLOGY OF B.G. ANANIEV
N. A. Loginova
B.G. Ananiev – a prominent methodologist of psychology. He put forward the anthropological principle and followed it in his researche, especially in complex researche of human individuality. B.G. Ananiev developed a structural model, highlighting individual, personality and subject. These three structural forms are integrated into the polysystem of individuality. Individuality as psychobiosocial integrity with an inner world is the ultimate goal of B.G. Ananiev’s anthropological psychology. Pedagogical anthropology became his practical application of anthropological principle in teaching. The project was aimed at the study of objective laws of human development and application of this knowledge for nature-oriented upbringing.
Key words: methеodology of psychology, B.G. Ananiev as methodologist, methodological profi le of a scientifi c school and its leader, anthropological principle, anthropological shift, structure of personalityindividuality as psychobiosocial wholeness, complex multidisciplinary researches in psychology, pedagogical anthropology.
REGULARITIES OF INDIVIDUAL EXPERIENCE ACTUALIZATION DEPENDING ON ITS DIFFERENTIATION DEGREE IN THE PROCESS OF BEHAVIOR ORGANIZATION
A. V. Rozhdestvin, O. E. Svarnik, Yu. V. Grinchenko, Yu. I. Alexandrov
The process of organization of behavior, preceding the “external” implementation of the latter, can be interpreted as the “internal” actualization (“playing in the mind”, mental rehearsal) of functional systems (elements of individual experience) that mediates “external” implementation of this behavior. The objective of the study was to identify whether the involvement of neurons in the process of organization of animals’ instrumental behavior is related to specialization of their neurons in respect to elements of individual experience, and if so, how. It was shown that the sets of neurons activated during “internal” actualization and during “external” behavior, although overlapping, but are not identical. Probability of neuron involvement into the process of behavior organization depends on its system specialization and on the relation between its specialization and the differentiation of individual experience.
Key words: decision making, individual development, systems differentiation, neuronal specialization, mental rehearsal.
ON PROSPECTS OF PSYCHOLOGY IN RUSSIAN SOCIETY PROBLEMS’ SOLVING: POINT OF VIEW OF ECONOMISTPSYCHOLOGIST
A. N. Neverov
Paper is devoted to the science refl ection to approach to understanding of perspectives of psychological science in solving problems of Russian society suggested in series of papers of A.L. Zhuravlev, D.V. Ushakov and A.V. Yurevich. The author sets the task of understanding and evaluating of suggested approaches and technologies from the position of aim functions and opportunities of economic psychology and behavioral economics. Critical analysis, that was made from this point of view, lead to the conclusion that mentality and model of psychosocial human are insuffi cient to answer of psychology to the questions that are formed by the society and other science disciplines. To the author opinion, Russian psychology can set a more ambitious aim – providing a methodological foundation of the new building of socio-humanitarian sciences. It is made the conclusion about the reasonable of involving of psychological knowledge as a scientifi c foundation for evaluating of process and result of social institutes design and for creation of system of science monitoring of psychological state of society changes in depends on ongoing socio-economic policy in the short, medium and long term periods.
Key words: psychology, mentality, society, human, economics, modeling, synthesis, science, development, monitoring, design, noosphere, state, relevance.
ACADEMIC AND PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGY: ACTUAL COEXISTENCE AND PROSPECTS
V. A. Mazilov
The history of relationships between academic and practical psychology is retraced. It is grounded that historically they have different backgrounds. It is shown, that registered by L.S. Vygotsky (1927) rupture between them existed and is existing until now, however it is not a crisis but normal state of science. Concurrence between natural-scientifi c and hermeneutical paradigms takes place in scientifi c psychology. Academic and practical psychologies are not competitors because they keep their own niche and work with different tasks. It is proved that there is no paradigmatic confrontation between academic and practical psychologies in present-day psychological science – it is masked “classical” confrontation between natural-scientifi c and hermeneutical paradigms.
Key words: academic psychology, practical psychology, paradigms, natural-scientifi c paradigm, hermeneutical (humanitarian) paradigm.
INTERNATIONALITY OF PSYCHOLOGY VERSUS “NATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIES”
T. V. Kornilova
Grounds for understanding psychological science as an integrated formation in the development of which multiple processes of socio-cultural determination are included are discussed in the article. History of psychology enables to demonstrate the specifi c character of psychology formation within the limits of different countries and cultural regions as well as heterochrony of similar processes of socio-economic development of psychological science in them. “Mainstreams” demonstrate the processes of globalization in science. Not a vogue but essential changes in methodology and theory of psychology can be revealed behind them. General standards of experimenting defi ned by K. Popper laid down the foundations for researching by means of this scientifi c method for all diversity of theoretical approaches and fi elds in psychology. Psychologist reconstructs unobservable processes using any scientifi c method. Indirect way of knowing related to hypothetic- deductive reasoning sets general “mainstream” of scientifi c psychology. The world of theories is international as well, so far as it gives general above-individual psychological knowledge; the object of study includes specifi c approaches for psychological reality under study separation and psychological research’s organization which however could not be regarded as variants of national psychologies.
Key words: science, culture, mainstream, experimental method, cultural-historical psychology, globalization.