№1 2015 (SUMMARIES)
THE MEANING OF LIFE: RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF RESEARCH
V. E. Chudnovsky
In article the results of long-term research of a problem of meaning of life are summed up. Special relevance of this problem in the conditions of modern society is emphasized: the orientation of human activity, reasonable management of it becomes an indispensable condition of a survival of the person on Earth, and the meaning of life is the concentrated expression of this orientation. The meaning of life is presented as the special mental education which is characterized by a certain substationality and causing relative emansipation of the subject from direct influences. The main characteristics of meaning of life are considered: its ambivalence, adequacy and constructibility. The hierarchical structure of a phenomenon of meaning of life and process of “monolitnization” of sense as manifestations of its inadequacy are described. Results of a pilot study of the integrating function of meaning of life are stated, the characteristic of a phenomenon “Me existential” as highest level of personal integration is given. Features of influence the meaning-of-life’s orientations to identity formation, including professional formation, are experimentally shown. The psychological characteristic of a phenomenon “the valuable and semantic relation to family life” as the factor promoting formation of the harmonious relations in a family is submitted. Some perspective lines of further research of a problem of meaning of life are in summary outlined.
Key words: orientation of internal activity of the person, meaning of life, adequacy and countereffi ciency of meaning of life, structural hierarchy, sense monolitnization, identity, creativity, refl ection, valuable and semantic relation to family life, vital space of the personality.
THE METHODOLOGY OF INTEGRAL SYNTHESIS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
V. N. Panferov, S. A. Bezgodova
Key methodological problems of psychology are designated. The detailed analysis of the main paradigms in psychology is given: psychophysical, psychophysiological, psychorefl exive, activity and psychological, socio-psychological and psychoanalytic. Possibility of the solution of methodological contradictions by integration of the existing experience of psychological knowledge is discussed. The new concept of special psychological methodology – methodology of integrated synthesis which leans on integrative model of the mental organization of the person is offered
Key words: fundamental paradigms of psychology, psychological knowledge, psychology of the person, methodology of integrated synthesis.
INTERRELATION BETWEEN GROUP PHENOMENA AND SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION
V. Sidorenkov, E. S. Koval
Relation between phenomena in small group and informal subgroup (3 subject phenomena and 12 relation phenomena) and socio-psychological adaptation of employees in group and subgroup was studied. In the sample of 32 industrial groups of different kinds of activity (N = 286) it was revealed that members of informal subgroups in the group manifest higher level of adaptation within their own subgroups than in the group in tote. Adaptation of employees in the group positively and statistically signifi cant correlates with all group phenomena whereas adaptation in subgroup positively and statistically signifi cant correlates only with phenomena of persons’ attitude to the subgroup (confi dentially-protective, informationalinfl uitive, and activity-coping trust in subgroup, cognitive, affective and behavioral identity with subgroup). By means of regression analysis it has been revealed that each phenomenon with the exception of openness’s rate contribute to positive value of employees adaptation. Practically all phenomena in the group and half of subgroup’s phenomena are included in one or other complexes. All phenomena contribute positively to adaptation at the level of group, whereas at the level of subgroup, phenomena of attitude to group contribute to adaptation positively while phenomena of interpersonal relations – negatively.
Key words: socio-psychological adaptation, subject’s characteristics, groups and subgroups, phenomena of relations in group and subgroup, small group, informal group, industrial group.
BUSINESSMEN VALUE ORIENTATIONS DYNAMICS IN CONDITIONS OF MACROSOCIAL CHANGES
N. A. Zhuravleva
There are presented the results of the research of the structure and dynamics of the Russian entrepreneurs’ value orientations. The interrogation included 574 opinions of the Moscow businessmen of various branches of small business – during six research “slices” were interviewed 574 people. According to the results of a study 1994–2006, there was a signifi cant dynamics in the value consciousness of entrepreneurs from the orientation to personal freedom and material well-being towards the orientation to the moral principles and ethical values, spiritual and professional growth.
Key words: value orientations, terminal values, instrumental values, businessmen, Russian society, socioeconomic changes.
PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR’S EXPLANATION
V. V. Latynov
The results of empiric study of factors of effectiveness of apologization of unethical behavior (N=153) are presented. The participants were asked to assess person’s behavior via “Behavior in ethically ambiguous situations” procedure. Adapted on Russian sample F. Brady’s questionnaire of ethical dispositions, questionnaire “Belief in Just World”, trust to people index, ethical cynicism index were used for diagnostics of personal characteristics. In was shown that besides “quality” of apologization’s modes their effectiveness depend on person’s psychological characteristics on whom this modes are directed at. In this respect, world-vision (justice, locus of control, trust to people) and ethical (ethical formalism, utilitarianism, ethical cynicism) person’s characteristics proved to be signifi cant ones.
Key words: apologization, infl uence, object of infl uence, message, apology, excuse, ethical attitudes, belief in just world.
CULTURAL-SPECIFIC AND INDIVIDUAL IN THE LIFE STORIES OF MEN AND WOMEN (BASED ON AUTOBIOGRAPHIES)
N. K. Radina
Models of men’s and women’s life stories have been reconstructed on the basis of transformed into categorical matrixes autobiographical texts. The hypothesis that gender-specifi c male and female autobiographies are not reduced to the specifi cs of male and female speech but refl ect a subjective processing of gender socialization norms was tested. Based on the method of biographical interviews autobiographies of 34 women from 31 to 72 years and 36 men from 23 to 69 years were recorded and compared. Autobiographical texts were subjected to the procedure of expert categorical analysis; obtained semantic matrixes were processed by means of methods of mathematical statistics. It has been shown that factor analysis of the autobiographical texts in contrast to the frequency one, questioned the “gender normativity” of personal history. Tendency to use adaptive life strategies in designing men’s autobiographical scripts and transformation of gender strategies in formulating female scenarios is described. The results of empirical study of male and female autobiographies concretize theoretical propositions concerning social creativity of female gender group, constituting women’s autobiography in the line traditional “cultural scripts’” changing.
Key words: autobiography, gender, male/female culture, life script, open coding, factor analysis.
LEVELS AND TYPES OF CREATIVITY: ANALYSIS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
L. Ya. Dorfman
The current psychological understanding of the levels and types of creativity is analyzed. The most wellknown domestic and foreign classifi cation levels of creativity are compared. The types of creativity are analyzed on the basis of its main features – utility and production of novelty. The concept of novelty is specifi ed in relation to the problem of the relation of creativity and intelligence. The question is of whether creativity is unitary and homogeneous construct or is plural and heterogeneous construct. The theoretical problems, the resolution of which may contribute to getting rid of the concept of creativity by excessively loose defi nition, are marked. In accordance with the identifi ed problems, four typological models of creativity are outlined. Among them there are the production of “good” novelty in opposition to the “just” novelty, taxonomy of novelty and creativity, taxonomy of creativity and intelligence, based on the use of focal and peripheral information, categorization of creativity, based on the conditions that trigger the creative process, and troubleshooting issues necessary for creative process. The advantages of a heterogeneous approach to creativity. over the homogeneous approach are described.
Key words: creativity, novelty seeking, utility levels of creativity, types of creativity, intelligence.
DYNAMIC UPDATES AND ACTUALIZATION OF SUBJECT’S PSYCHOLOGICAL RESOURCES THROUGHOUT PROFESSIONAL CAREER
V. A. Tolochek , N. I. Zhuravleva
The results of studying the dynamics of professional development of the subject and the actualization of professional resources in representatives of different professions (managers, accountants, entrepreneurs) and different social groups (men/women managers/subordinates) are given. An experimental study on a sample of 96 people. aged 31–47 years old was performed, the goal was to assess the dynamics of the subjects assessment of their professionalism and its components for a professional career (20 to 65 years). It was highlighted the essential features of the phenomenon “resources” as selectively actualized conditions of internal and external environment of the subject, the power to infl uence and alter the valence of determining the success of a social subject. It was identifi ed a number of dynamic features that characterize resources as a psychological phenomenon. The sequence of participation and intrasubject and outsubject resources in the professional formation of the subject was refl ected.
Key words: dynamics, conditions, resources, intrasubject resources, outsubject resources, the environment, the subject, career development, professionalism.
THE ROLE OF FAMILY RESOURCES IN SELECTION OF CANDIDATES FOR ADOPTIVE PARENTS
A. V. Makhnach, A. I. Laktionova, Yu. V. Postylyakova
The purpose of study is to defi ne the role of the family resources in the selection of adoptive parents’ applicants. Assumed that the risk of adoptive family’ assessment is a necessary stage in selection procedure, but insuffi cient one. Familial and individual resources of family members reciprocally associated with psychopathology symptoms of adoptive parents’ applicants: the higher level of resources is the less pronounced psychiatric symptoms. The study was conducted on a sample of adoptive parents’ applicants from 16 regions of Russia (n = 153); among them men were 53 (34.64%), women – 100 (65.43%). The average age of the respondents – 37.90 + 5.12 y.o. The Test of family resources – II, Hardiness test, D. Olson FACES-III, SCL-90-R, Crowne and Marlowe social desirability scale were used. It was shown that for the prediction of child’ successful placement in the family the most important resources are: the individual resilience of adoptive parents, effective family communication, problem-solving skills, well developed resource management, as well as the realistic perception of the family fi nancial status. Hardiness and family resources are complementing each other. For the compensation of some specifi c psychopathological symptoms different kind of individual and family resources are important, the combination of family and individual resources is presented as well. Adoptive parents’ high resources reduce the manifestations of psychopathology symptoms, contributing to adaptation of the family with adoptive child. The test battery used in this study is valid and is effective one for the selection of adoptive parents’ applicants. The assessment of adoptive parents’ applicants psychopathology and their resources as a family can provide their better training and assistance.
Key words: individual and family resources, psychopathology, adoptive parents’ applicants, orphans, adoptive parents, resilience, social adaptation, hardiness.
WHETHER THE SCIENCE HAS NATIONAL FEATURES?
A. V. Yurevich
Whether the science can have national features? The author shows that, contrary to the widespread stereotypes denying a national originality of science, it is distinctly shown in all three components of scientific knowledge: in its object, process and a product. The national originality is observed both in socio-humanistic, and in natural sciences, but shown in them unevenly, accruing in three directions: 1) from natural sciences – to socio-humanistic; 2) from object, and then a product – to process of scientific knowledge; 3) from a cognitive component of this process – to social. The considerable attention in article also is paid to a national originality of the Russian science and national specifics of psychological knowledge.
Key words: scientific knowledge, natural and socio-humanistic science, national features of science.