№5 2014 (SUMMARIES)
Sychology Of Choice. I. Beyond Rationality
Theoretical analysis of modern situation in problem of choice in psychology is presented in the article. Three main aspects of the problem: (1) relationship between choice and decision-making; (2) analysis and interpretation of phenomena of socio-cultural construction of choice or no-choice situations and (3) substantiation of interpretation of choice as a form of intrinsic activity and its varieties are in its focus.
Key words: choice, uncertainty, decision-making, rationality, judgment, culture, construction, activity, operations, means, energy
Socio-psychological grounds of national scientific-research culture
Pecific features of Russian scientific community that distinguish it from analogous ones in other countries and make it possible to introduce a category of national scientific-research culture are considered. Inner structure of this category including values and practices that are organized at the levels of world’s scientific culture, national, humanitarian or natural-science, organizational cultures of concrete research institutes, universities etc. are analyzed. The question about psychological determination of scientific-research culture with a value component as the leading is put. Strategy for scientific culture study via analysis of crucial historic points, determining fundamental revision of scientific-research practices is proposed.
Key words: scientific-research culture, psychology of science, national peculiarities of scientific activity
Neural network analysis of the relationship between verbal and nonverbal intelligence in younger adolescents
Slavutskaya E.V., Slavutskii L.A.
A new complex data processing method based on factor analysis and artificial neural networks is presented. With its help, the results of testing of younger adolescents by using Cattell’s “Culture Free Intellect Test” and 12-factor questionnaire were analyzed. It is shown quantitatively that the formation of relationships between verbal and nonverbal intelligence depends essentially on children’s personality traits. Using neural networks allows to reveal new patterns and to evaluate strongly nonlinear relationships between psychological characteristics. Such relationships are difficult to analyze by traditional statistical methods.
Key words: artificial neural networks, factor analysis, personal traits, younger adolescents, verbal intelligence, nonverbal intelligence, neural network analysis
Psychological researches of cosmonauts’ functional states: achievements and perspectives
The article is devoted to the analysis of fundamental research results of functional states and operability of human operator in conditions simulating space flight factors. The large amount of fundamental and practical results obtained in the course of joint researches of the Institute of Psychology RAS with other institutes involved in cosmonautics is analyzed. The main areas of researches are: development of psychometric methods for diagnosis of mental processes and functional states of cosmonauts in different situations and conditions of activity; search for the subject-personality determinants of adaptation to difficult situations in unusual human space flight; self-regulation of negative functional states developing in extreme conditions of performance; the problems of group performance and interpersonal relationships in a crew.
Key words: cosmonaut, human operator, modeling of space flight factors, adaptation, operability, psychophysiology, functional states, sensory deprivation, psychophysics, spatial perception, self-regulation, stress, motivational and volitional determinants, system-performance concept
Perfectionism as a prognostic sign of unfavorable course of depressive disorders
N. G. Garanyan, V. N. Vasil'eva
The hypothesis that the level of perfectionism can be used as a prognostic sign for unfavorable course of depressive disorders and resistance to pharmacotherapy is tested. In the group of 40 patients with unfavorable course of depressive disorders and bad reaction to antidepressant therapy (non-responders) higher values of perfectionism's parameters independent of depressive state's severity were registered compared to analogous values of 40 respondents. Correlations between perfectionism parameters and characteristics of depressive disorders' course (positive - with disease remoteness, number of hospi¬talizations, duration of current episode and negative - with the remission's duration) were revealed. According to discriminant analysis some perfectionism's parameters serve as a criterion for patients' group belonging.
Key words: depressive disorders, chronification, therapeutic resistance, personal factors, perfectionism, respondents, non-responders.
Statistical analysis of doctoral dissertations on psychology (1935-2013 years)
Antsupov A. Ya., Kandybovitch S.L., Kruk V.M., Timchenko G.N., Kharitonov A.N.
The paper presents quantitative analysis of doctorate dissertations defended by Russian psychologists during the last 77 years. The objectives of the study were: establishing dynamic tendencies in the amount of dissertations defended yearly; estimation of the number of doctorate dissertation defended in various regions and in various scientific specialties; identification of the age and gender differences among the dissertation authors; evaluation of the frequency of typical dissertation research matters and the most frequently studied categories of subjects. The main conclusions are the following. Evolutional exponential growth of average amount of yearly defended dissertation was identified. 53 % of the dissertations were defended in Moscow, 17.2 % in Leningrad - S-Petersburg, and 29.8 % in other cities. More that 70% of doctorate dissertations were defended on four specialties: 19.00.01 - 27.0 %, 19.00.07 - 23.0 %, 19.00.05 - 12 %, 19.00.13 - 9.7 %. 690 dissertations were defended by men and 623 ones by women, 52.5 % and 47.5 % respectively. During the last 3 years, approximately 80% of doctorate dissertations were defended by women. Average age of the applicant at the time of defense was 48.3. The matters of personality performance, groups, learning, thinking, and acmeology were studied most of all. The most frequent respondents were schoolchildren, preschoolers, college and university students and teenagers. A number of interesting quantitative aspects of the doctorate dissertations was identified and partly explained, that resulted in deeper evaluation of the Russian psychology current state.
Key words: psychology, doctoral dissertation, quantitative analysis, research matters, academic degree, scientific specialty, applicant’s age, defended dissertations number dynamics
Social psychological research of victimity of girls - victims of sex slavery
Socio-psychological conditions for origin of victimity and victim behavior of girls - victims of sex slavery have been studied. The study was conducted in the Moscow rehabilitation center of International Organization for Migration for the victims of trafficking. 78 females - victims of sex slavery aging 15-35 constitute the main group in the study; the control group consists of 100 female students of the university aging 18-25 years. Significant differences in the level of socialization, personality characteristics, and conditions of socialization were revealed between groups. Six groups of key socio-psychological features characterizing cognitive, emotional and volitional, personality factors of victimization, rehabilitation potential, traumatic experience, typical for female victims of sex slavery were identified by means of factor analysis. It was proved that victimity as a socio-psychological mechanism of social behavior regulation correlates with girls’ difficult life situation, as well as with social immaturity, which is a consequence of unfavorable conditions of socialization.
Key words: victimity, victim behavior, girls-victims, disfunctional family, unfavorable conditions of socialization, low socialization, psychological trauma, human trafficking, sexual slavery, sex-trafficking, social and psychological immaturity of personality, difficult life situation, conditions of victimization
Psychological aspects of interface problem in technogenic world
Theoretical and methodological problems arising in ergonomics systems and industrial environments interfaces designing are examined in the article. A number of solutions (both psychological and technical) to the “man-including-into-the-ergatic-system” problem is presented. Peculiarities of mechanisms of functioning of consciousness’s as the interface connecting the subject with the world of activities are described. Some types of intelligence units emerge in interface systems, depending on the level of organization and intelligence-involving interaction’s processes are proposed.
Key words: interface, user interface, operator, consciousness, ergatic system, technogenic environment, hybrid intelligence, artificial intelligence, diffuse intelligence