№1 2014 (SUMMARIES)
Collective meanings as a premise for personal happiness
Zhuravlev A. L., Yurevich A. V
Economy and psychology of happiness as new scientiﬁc approaches to society’s goals and key points of its development understanding are examined. Psychological structure of happiness and its main compo nents are described. Correspondences between such resembling notions as happiness, satisfaction with life, subjective quality of life and subjective well-being are analyzed. Conception about meaning of life as one of fundamental components of satisfaction with life and happiness are based. Collective meanings of life are supposed to be one of the basic elements of happiness in collectivist cultures. National idea the lack of which in Russia gives rise to a number of typical “social diseases” is considered as the main source for collective meanings of life.
Key words: economy, psychology, happiness, satisfaction with life, subjective well-being, quality of life, meaning of life, collective meanings, national idea
Theories and empirical researches on justice in the foreign personality psychology
Nartova-Bochaver S. K., Astanina N. B
The review of researches and theories in psychology of justice in foreign personality psychology is presented. Theories of belief in a just world and sensitivity to justice are analyzed. Methods and procedures of justice study in psychology are speciﬁed. Phenomenology of belief in a just world as a world-view attitude and justice sensitivity as a personal traitis described. Prospects for psychology of justice for different ﬁelds of applied psychology are outlined.
Key words: psychology of personality, psychology of justice, belief in a just world, sensitivity to justice, prosocial attitudes, selﬁsh attitudes, person’s resources
Stability and dynamics in childhood personality: the role of gender and age
Kozlova E. A., Akhmetova O. A., Slobodskaya H. R
The longitudinal study presents stability and changes in the Big Five and mid-level personality traits measured by the “Inventory of Children’s Individual Differences” (ICID) of 441 children aged 2 to 14 years. Differential continuity of personality traits in childhood and adolescence was moderate in magnitude; Conscientiousness and Extraversion were the most consistent, whereas Neuroticism was the least consistent. Results showed that children and adolescents increase in Consciousness and decrease in Neuroticism. These mean-level changes were observed mainly in girls. The role of age showed normative developmental changes: Strong-Willed decreased in preschool and school age and increased in adolescence; Fear increased in preschool and then decreased; Conscientiousness and Organized increased in school age
Key words personality, development, children, adolescents
characteristics and mathematical achievement in high school students:
Tikhomirova T. N., Malykh S. B., Tosto M. G., Kovas Y. V.
The report presents the cross-cultural study of cognitive characteristics - number sense, spatial memory, and speed of processing - in their relation to the variation in mathematical achievement in high school students from UK and the Russian Federation. Analyses of variance showed statistically signiﬁcant average differences between the two countries on all assessed variables. The results of the multiple regression identiﬁed three universal cognitive predictors of mathematical achievement: (1) the precision of placement of a number on a mental number line; (2) the ability to compare non-symbolic numerosities; and (3) the spatial working memory capacity. The results of cross-cultural comparisons are interpreted in the context of the two educational systems.
Key words cross-cultural analyses, educational environment, individual differences, gender differences, speed of processing, visuo-spatial memory, number sense, mathematical achievement, high-school students
Unity of differential and integration mechanisms in development of special abilities and creativity in the context of scientiﬁc knowledge increase
Volkova E. V.
The results of theoretical and empiric analysis indicative of unity in differential and integration mechanisms of scientiﬁc knowledge’s increase, conceptual structures’ formation, development of general and special mental abilities as well as origination of ideas in creative process are presented. Origination of new ideas or personality’s characteristics transition from one developmental level to another is shown to be accompanied by simultaneous increase in differentiation and integration. Characteristics of conceptual structures’ organization relevant to certain ﬁelds of object reality are shown to be the best predictors of activity efﬁciency under the sufﬁcient level of intelligence and creativity development and object knowledge’s mastering.
Key words differential and integration theory of development, communication and special abilities, mental structures
ethnic identity of migrants - Armenian and
their living conditions in host community
Konstantinov V. V., Vershinina M. V
The problem of correlation between the experience of being in other ethno-cultural environment and involvement in national-cultural autonomy with peculiarities of migrants’ ethnic identity are examined. Differences in types of ethnic identity, strategies of acculturation, substantial characteristics of identity, level of person’s aggression subject to duration of migrants’ staying in host ethnic environment and their involvement in the activity of national community are revealed. Main identiﬁcational models of migrants - model of narrow - ethnic identiﬁcation, model of unstable identiﬁcation and model of outofethnic identiﬁcation are marked out and described.
Key words ethnic identity, communal organizations, peculiarities of ethnic identity, identiﬁcational mod- els of personality
Interdisciplinary approach to genesis of psychological thought in Old Russian period study
Klypa O. V
Speciﬁc character of interdisciplinary approach to historic-psychological researches is described. The use of logic-selective method in the study of genesis of Old Russian psychological thought is based. Perspective lines for psychological thought in Old Russian period study are deﬁned. Icon painting is considered to be a form of reﬂection of Old Russian’s psychological attitudes.
Key words genesis, psychological thought, old russian period, interdisciplinary research, methods of historic-psychological study, forms of reﬂecting of psychological attitudes, icon painting
Internationality and national peculiarity of science
Shefer B., Shleder B
Relationship between internationality and national peculiarities of science is discussed. Point of view that nationally conditioned and international fundamentals of science do not eliminate each other but are in fruitful changeable interrelation is stated. The conclusion that under all efforts aimed at internationality it is necessary to take into consideration corresponding nationally conditioned traditions and mentality.
Key words science, mainstream, internationality, national peculiarities, scientific cognition, value atti- tude, innovational potential
mindedness” in the structure of intellectual and personal potential
(adaptation of questionnaire)
Novikova M. A., Kornilova T. V
The results of Psychological Mindedness Scale approbation on Russian students’ sample are presented. Factor structure, empirical and convergent validity are described. Correlations between scales of questionnaire and indices of tolerance for ambiguity, risk readiness, rationality, reﬂexivity, self-assessed intelligence and emotional intelligence are discussed.
Key words self-consciousness, psychological mindedness, self-assessment of intelligence, tolerance for ambiguity, risk, rationality, self-efficiency, emotional intelligence, personal intelligence
Elaboration of questionnaire for notions about love study
Djidaryan I. A., Belovol E.V., Maslova O. V
Procedure for notions about love study is proposed. Discriminating feature of the questionnaire is in its orientation on value-meaning aspects of love. Dicta of famous thinkers, writers, poets, cultural workers as well as proverbs and sayings are in the basis. Psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire are presented. Three factors were extracted, thus three subscales: “Love as an encumbrance”, “Love as a devotion”, and “Love as man ennobles power” were deﬁned.
Key words classical notions about love, reliability, factor structure, orthogonality, correlation analysis, second order factors, subscales
Adaptation of the Russian version of “The Sport Imagery Questionnaire”
Veraksa A. N., Gorovaya A. E., Grushko A. I., Bayanova L. F., Galliulina M. Sh., Galyavieva D. G
The results of the psychometric analysis of the suitability of the Russian version of the “The Sport Imagery Questionnaire” (“Questionnaire using imagery in sport”) are presented. Powered meaningful comparison of the results in the Russian-speaking, Spanish and Finnish samples of athletes is obtained. Patterns of use of the sport imageries by Russian-speaking athletes in accordance with the speciﬁc age, gender, speciﬁc to that particular sport are identiﬁed. The possibility of use of presented version of the questionnaire for further research is measured.
Key words sport, sport psychology, imagery, “the sport imagery questionnaire” (siq)
“Thought” as an object for psychological study
Shadrikov V. D.
The results of fundamental psychological problem’s study - ‘what is a human thought’, ‘what is a mechanism of its generation’, and ‘what is a structure of human thought - are presented. The neurophysiological mechanisms that ensure the thought generation are discussed as well. The deﬁnition of thought as a need-emotional-intentional substance is provided. The thought-image and thought-word relationships are exposed. The analysis of thought and image intellectualization process is given. The necessity of introducing the notion ‘thought’ into categorial apparatus of psychology is argued.
Key words categorial apparatus, human thinking, generation mechanism, structure, information, intel- lectualization, thought and image, thought and word