№ 6 2014 (SUMMARIES)
THE SCIENTIST’S LIFE – THE SEARCH AND DISCOVERY OF IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE IN EXPLICIT KNOWING (THE ANNIVERSARY OF L.I. ANTSYFEROVA)
N. E. Kharlamenkova
Professional way of the scientist – Lyudmila Ivanovna Antsyferova, the author of fundamental works in the fi eld of methodology and theory of psychology, is analyzed. It is shown that the steps of own way in science were closely linked to tendencies in the world and national psychology from mid-twentieth to the beginning of the XXI century. It is emphasized the particular style of the scientist, manifested in the ability to detect actual problems of psychology long before their recognition and study of the scientific community. The basic milestones of the career way of L.I. Antsyferova and the achievements in the fi eld of methodology of psychology, psychology of thinking and personality psychology, in gerontopsychology, are shown.
Key words: methodology of psychology, elementary cognitive activity, thinking, personality, activity, subject, latent properties, dynamic approach to the study of personality, humanistic approach, development of personality, wisdom
LUDMILA IVANOVNA ANTSYFEROVA AS THE ORGANIZER OF LABORATORY OF PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY
M. I. Volovikova
The article is devoted to the memory of L.I. Antsyferova (1924–2013) – Honored Scientist of RF, Honorary member of RAE, Doctor of science in psychology, professor. The role of L.I. Antsyferova – science’s organizer, researcher and methodologist – in establishing of Laboratory of psychology of personality in the Institute of Psychology Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1984 is disclosed. L.I. Antsyferova’s research guidelines at different periods of her creative development are analyzed. According to author’s opinion, problems of person’s self-perfection, self-actualization and other kinds of positive self-regulation dominated in L.I. Antsyferova’s works before laboratory establishing. The work of L.I. Antsyferova with her pupils who are famous psychologist at present is described, variety of dissertation’s themes prepared under her guidance is emphasized. The conclusion about the continuity of L.I. Antsyferova’s ideas in Laboratory research works at present is drawn.
Key words: personality, psychology, science, scientifi c division, scientifi c contribution, creative work, scientist’s way, self-actualization, psychological health, morality, values, positive psychology, scientific school, scientific traditions, L.I. Antsyferova.
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: L.I. ANTSYFEROVA’S IDEAS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT IN MODERN SCIENCE
E. A. Sergienko
Addressing the scientifi c heritage of L.I. Antsyferova, there were highlighted three ideas in developmental psychology: the developmental principle of psychology, the relationships between Person and Subject and age coordinates of human life (Ageing). There was shown contemporary and effi ciency of her ideas and continued development in research. It is the necessity of fi lling content of the principle of development in psychology, which is inextricably linked with the principles of continuity, of anticipation, of subjectivity. In the development of L.I. Antsyferova’s ideas we proposed hypothesis of the relationship between subject and personality as inseparable incarnation of human individuality, continuously developing in ontogenecy. Antsyferova expressed position on productive aging based on the reorganization of the person we were seen in the optical coordinate subjective age identity (subjective age of a person). It is shown that ideas of L.I. Antsyferova serve as landmarks in the development of modern issues of developmental psychology and psychology in general.
Key words: developmental psychology, the development principle in psychology, continuity of development, the principle of anticipation, the principle of subjectivity, the relation of the subject and person, successful aging, subjective age.
L.I. ANTSYFEROVA’S IDEAS OF THE METHODOLOGY OF APPLIED PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY
S. K. Nartova-Bochaver
The connection of L.I. Antsyferova’s ideas of the personal development and counseling psychology is traced. The main principles of applied personality psychology are described (system, determinism, development, and complementarity). Synergetic and compensatory interaction between the person and situation is considered. Everyday life psychology as a theoretical base of counseling is analyzed. The interrelation of counseling and natural psychotherapy is discussed. Defi cient and self-actualization models of psychotherapy are identifi ed. The empirical data about natural techniques of client’s self-help in cases of defi cient and self-actualization complaints are shown. It is concluded that everyday life is a signifi cant resource of personal development.
Key words: personality, counseling, natural psychotherapy, deficient and self-actualization complaints, mental and environmental techniques.
LIFELONG SCIENCE (SOME TRAITS TO L.I. ANTSYFEROVA’S PORTRAIT)
Scientifi c analysis of Ludmila Ivanovna Antsyferova’s creative way and personal impression about scientist with whom the author had been working and communicating for 50 years is presented. It is shown logically and impartially that L.I. Antsyferova was enthusiastic researcher, competent leader, creative scientist and person of high moral standards. She combined such qualities as warmth and exactingness, kindness and adherence to her principles, openness to new knowledge and adherence to scientific principles of hypotheses-proving system construction. Different spheres of L.I. Antsyferova’s scientific activity viz scientifi c and organizational, research, pedagogical (training of scientifi c personnel) etc. are portrayed, her main scientifi c achievements are noted.
Key words: scientist’s personality, creative way, scientific activity, scientific heritage, psychology of personality, methodology and history of psychology, scientific and organizational activity.
MEMORIES OF SISTER
G.I. Larionova (Antsyferova)
The author describes brilliant lively image of Ludmila Ivanovna Antsyferova – well-known scientist for us and beloved elder sister for her. Her course of life: childhood, youth, maturity, last years of her life appears before us in the eyes of immediate relative. It is an invaluable information about a Person from a capital letter to whom nothing human is alien. We see how little playful and curious girl becomes a researcher, thinker with a gift of prevision of prospective ways for science’s development; her ideas is still actual for many branches of psychology and are developed by new generations of L.I. Antsyferova’s pupils and successors.
Key words: L.I. Antsyferova, scientist’s life course, biography, L.I. Antsyferova’s family.
PSYCHOLOGY OF CHOICE. II. PERSONALITY PREREQUISITS OF CHOICE AND ITS PERSONALITY-RELATED CONSEQUENCES
D. A. Leontiev
The paper continues the theoretical analysis of the modern state of the problem of choice in psychology. The relationships between choice and personality are analyzed in two aspects: first, the impact of existential choice at personality transformations and second, the impact of personality variables at the opportunities of choice implementation and at its quality. Based on Kierkegaard’s and Lefebvre’s ideas, self-determined character of existential choice’s processes is shown. This type of choice doesn’t give in to a causal explanation and isn’t brought out of individual and psychological features. The detailed analysis of an existential choice relying on concepts of opportunity, responsibility and the price is submitted. In summary offered model of a choice fi ts into a context of the author’s concept of personal potential; the concept of readiness for a choice as the integrated personal prerequisite providing possibility of full activity of a choice is entered.
Key words: choice, personality, freedom, price, existential accounting, construction, personality potential.
CORRELATION BETWEEN QUANTUM PHYSICS AND PSYCHOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS
V. F. Petrenko, A. P. Suprun
The problem of interpretation of Reality as well as its methodological conceptions in physics and psychology is considered in the article. Different approaches to the problem of “objective reality” existence (independent of any observer) are discussed. From the standpoint of A. Einstein, the only task of science is to determine “what exists” while from the standpoint of N. Bohr and W. Heisenberg the shift from possible to real occurs at the same moment of observation and there is no observer independent reality. More powerful expression of latter position is in statements of R. Penrose and M.B. Mensky about participation of consciousness in wave function reduction. From the standpoint of psychological science the authors of the article consider the given problem as shift in world‘s description from the language of wave processes possessing “connectivity” or “entanglement” (the language of Hilbert space, in which the unconscious “speaks”) to object language of consciousness for which the processes are described more adequately in space–time according to corresponding metric (Euclid, Lobachevski, Riemann).
Key words: quantum physics, methodology of psychology, reduction of wave function, consciousness, unconsciousness, Hilbert space, nonlocality of being, phenomenon of connectivity (or entanglement), Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox, (EPR).
RESEARCHES OF COSMONAUTS’ PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE: ANALYSIS AND ACHIEVEMENTS
A. N. Kostin, Yu. Ya. Golikov
The article describes the content and the main scientifi c results of years of researches of cosmonauts’ professional performance conducted in the Institute of Psychology RAS at different times. The background of these researches conditioned by spacefl ight practices is shown. The description of the experimental tools and unusual conditions of the researches is presented. The great practical signifi cance of the results for improvement of training of cosmonauts on Earth and in the long space fl ights, as well as for designing of the new manned spacecraft is shown.
Key words: cosmonaut’s performance, mental regulation, problemacity, similarity of performance, flight image, anticipation, training zones, decision support, design of cosmonaut’s interaction with onboard control loop.
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN TEXTS’ CONTENT-ANALYSIS: THE CHOICE OF MEASURES
A. N. Oleinik, I. P. Popova, S. G. Kirdina, T. Y. Shatalova
The paper discusses several reliability measures: Scott’s pi, Krippendorff’s alpha, free marginal adjustment (Bennett, Alpert and Goldstein’s S), Cohen’s kappa, and Perreault and Leigh’s I and the assumptions on which they are based. It is suggested that correlation coeffi cients between, on one hand, the distribution of qualitative codes and, on the other hand, word co-occurrences and the distribution of the categories identifi ed with the help of the dictionary based on substitution complement the other reliability measures. The paper shows that the choice of the reliability measure depends on the format of the text (stylistic versus rhetorical) and the type of reading (comprehension versus interpretation). Namely, Cohen’s kappa and Bennett, Alpert and Goldstein’s S emerge as reliability measures particularly suited for perspectival reading of rhetorical texts. Outcomes of the content analysis of 57 texts performed by four coders with the help of computer program QDA Miner inform the analysis.
Key words: content-analysis, reliability measures, correlation analysis, interpretation, stylistic texts, rhetorical texts, psychology of reading.