№4 2014 (SUMMARIES)
Peculiarities of attitudes of men and women entrepreneurs to competition and partnership in business cooperation
Poznyakov V.P., Titova O.I.
Gender differences in attitudes of Russian entrepreneurs to competition and partnership in business cooperation have been examined. Social psychology of entrepreneurship - new cross-disciplinary approach integrating social and economic psychology - is the basis for the research. It has been revealed that men-entrepreneurs consider competition as a contest with other entrepreneurs for personal achievements while women-entrepreneurs - for economic resource. Men-entrepreneurs consider business partnership as economically oriented while women-entrepreneurs - personally oriented and based on interpersonal contacts. Motives of obtaining the recognition of society and authority over entrepreneurs are much more typical for women-entrepreneurs, while men-entrepreneurs manifest in competition motives of independence and possibility for new projects' realization. Men-entrepreneurs in partnership unlike women-entrepreneurs estimate personal qualities of their business-partners more differentially subject to the gender of the person.
Key words: entrepreneurship, gender, gender stereotype, psychological attitude, everyday presentation, motivation for entrepreneurial activity, business interaction, competition, partnership, personal qualities
Relationship of adolescents'' personal peculiarities with everyday use of computer
Rippinen T.O., Slobodskaya H.R.
The structure of adolescents' behavior at the computer and its correlations with personal peculiarities are described in the article. The study was conducted in a sample of 993 adolescents (ranging 14-18 years). Personality characteristics of adolescents were measured by the Inventory of Child Individual Differences. The study showed that the behaviour of teenagers at the computer has a multidimensional structure. A significant proportion of the variance of computer use is explained by five factors; intensity is crucial to use a computer. The individual style of behaviour is also determined by the content of computer use: fascination with computer games, using simple and advanced applications and virtual communication. It was determined that desire for virtual communication is associated with positive emotionality, sociability, organization, activity, complaisance, empathy, achievement motivation, openness to experience, low level of shyness and antagonism. Teens who spend a lot of time at the computer, in network games and virtual communication are characterized by unconsciousness, obstinacy, and emotional stability. Teens, characterized by the set of personality traits like sociability, activity, low levels of shyness and timidity, stubbornness, antagonistic, distractibility, disorganization and lack of desire for achievements are at risk of excessive use of computer and game addiction.
Key words: virtual communication, internet, computer use, canonical correlation analysis, computer games, personality traits, neuroticism, intransigence, openness, teens, five-factor model of personality traits, inventory of child individual differences. (icid), network games, consciousness, social networks, factor analysis, extraversion
Relationship between adolescents'' self-esteem and their experience of being bullied by peers
Tilindiene I., Rastauskiene G., Emel'yanovas A.
The results of interrelation's study between adolescents' self-esteem (confidence in oneself and self-crit-icality) and their experience of being bullied by the peers are presented. 1759 adolescents from different towns and regions of Lithuania aged 12-17 athletes and non-athletes, have been interviewed. The level of self-confidence and self-criticality of adolescents involved in different kinds of sport activity is found to be lower than the one in non-athletes. Adolescents with low level of self-criticality and self-confidence are being bullied more frequently. Sport activity is a factor of bullying preventing: adolescents non-athletes and with low level of self-confidence are being bullied more frequently.
Key words: bullying, adolescent''s self-esteem, self-confidence, self-criticality, sport activity
Regulatory and cognitive predictors of students'' mathematical success
Morosanova V.I., Fomina T.G., Kovas Y.V., Bogdanova O.E.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mathematical achievement and students' cognitive and regulatory characteristics. The results showed that self-regulation is a significant predictor of mathematical success, beyond the contribution of general intelligence and cognitive abilities. Moreover, we found that different aspects of mathematical success were explained by partly different cognitive and regulatory factors. We discuss the results with the view that conscious self-regulation may serve as a metacognitive factor that is involved in intellectual activity.
Key words: conscious self-regulation, cognitive characteristics, learning activities, mathematical ability, mathematical achievement
Comparative study of mental development of preterm and full-term infants in age 3 to 24 months reared in the orphanage
Chernego D.I., Muhamedrahimov R.J.
The comparative study of mental development of preterm and full-term children reared in the orphanage was conducted in age 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was found that preterm and full-term infants did not differ in the level of communicative and personal-social development (except for the age of 3 months). At the same time, preterm children had a lower level of motor development at the age of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months, as well as the level of adaptive development at the age of 3, 6 and 18 months and cognitive development at the age of 3, 6 and 9 months than full-term children. Also preterm children have a lower total level of development at the age of 3, 6 and 18 months than their full-term peers.
Key words: preterm and full-term children, infant development, orphanage, social-emotional environment
Correlation of values of culture with types and standards of prosocial behavior of Russians and Byelorussians
Gritsenko V.V., Kovaleva Y.V.
The results of cross-cultural study of values and prosocial behavior of Russian and Byelorussian students residing in the territory of Smolensk region (N = 132) are presented. The comparative analysis of values regulating behavior of ethnoses' representatives at the level of individual standard models is given. Similarities and differences of correlations between values of culture and types and standards of prosocial behavior due to culture-psychological peculiarities of Russians and Byelorussians are revealed. Similarities become apparent in the facts that orientation on values reflecting individual and group interests as well (Benevolence, Universalism) rises probability of prosocial behavior based on standards of justice, while orientation on values reflecting solely individual interests (Hedonism, Achievement) promotes public prosocial acts on the basis of standards of reciprocity. Specificity is in the fact that observed common regularities in correlation of value priorities with types, standards of prosocial behavior in Byelorussian sample are expressed stronger, and more definitely than in Russian sample.
Key words: values of culture, prosocial behavior, types, standards of prosocial behavior, russians, Byelorussians
Ethno-cultural factors of person''s subjective well-being
The results of theoretical analysis of studies of ethno-cultural peculiarities of person's subjective well-being are presented. The main problems of determination of subjective well-being (influence of "cultural dimensions", effects of person's ethnical socialization, belonging to the titular group) are revealed. Data about peculiarities of subjective well-being due to person's ethno-psychological status (identity, value orientations, belonging to the culture etc.), type of inter-ethnical relations are presented. The necessity for complex analysis of ethno-, socio- and psychological factors of subjective well-being are stressed. The conclusion about high social, scientific-and-theoretical significance of ethno-psychological researches of subjective well-being in Russia is drawn.
Key words: subjective well-being, satisfaction, happiness, balance of emotions, personality, ethnic group, culture, attitude, socialization, identity, values, subject, ethnic norms, determinants
Evolutional approach to face perception
Trends in psychological researches devoted to the problem of face perception by different kinds of animals as a source of subjective significant information are discussed. Broaden interpretation of term "face" that makes it possible to use it for not only man or primates, but for other animals including invertebrates as well is proposed. Application of evolutional approach to researches on face perception is based. Original methodological approaches and new findings on perception of face as an "organ" of social interaction, sign of individual differentiation, and source of situational cognitive and emotionally significant information are presented. Faces are shown to be significant objects for many animals. It is argued that high significance of visual information channel and importance of social interactions are premises for the development of ability for faces' discrimination, categorization and remembering. The results of researches on specific neuronal and behavioral responses of representatives of several kinds of animals to the face as a specific type of visual stimuli are presented. Increase in local activity of homo-logical regions of brain when other individuals are recognized or in response to their emotional sate in man, primates and in sheep too is confirmed. Similar perceptual phenomena such as inversion effect, effect of "own race", etc. are marked.
Key words: perception of faces, visual stimulus, individual differentiation, categorization, perception of emotions, perceptual phenomena, social interactions, communication of animals with man, direction of a look, brain specialization, adaptation, phylogenies, evolution
Academic Motivation Scales" questionnaire
Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Osin E.N.
The results of elaboration of a new questionnaire of academic motivation (in the sample of universities students, N = 459) based on self-determination theory describing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of academic activity are presented. Different types of motivation related to needs that are satisfied by the nature of learning activity (such as needs for cognition, achievement, and personal growth) and needs external to learning (such as needs for autonomy and self-respect) are revealed. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a theoretical model with seven scales, including three scales measuring types of intrinsic motivation (intrinsic cognition, achievement, and personal growth), three scales measuring extrinsic motivation (motivation for self-respect, introjected, and external regulation), and an amotivation scale. All the scales have sufficient reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients in the.71 to.92 range) and demonstrate predictable correlations with other measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, curiosity, and satisfaction of three basic needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). Gender differences in academic motivation were weaker than differences across universities. The questionnaire allows analyzing integral motivational profiles for groups or individual students, providing a holistic picture of academic motivation.
Key words: motivation assessment, academic motivation in students, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, need for autonomy, need for competence, self-determination theory